| Pyi-daung-zu Myan-ma Naing-ngan-daw
|Anthem: "Kaba Ma Kyei"|
|Official Language: Burmese|
|Government: Military Dictatorship|
|Leader: General Khin Lwin|
|Formation: 4 January 1948|
|Area: 676,578 km² km2|
|Population: 47,760,056(Jan 1990)|
|GDP: $83.35(Jan 1990)|
In 1990, under the leadership of Shogi Effendi, the burmese military dictatorship transformed itself into an elaborate monarchy, renown worldwide for it's excess. King Effendi's plane was lost in the mountains in January 1991. With the newness of the monarchy and no clear heir, the future leadership of the nation was in question. Effendi briefly returned in mid-1991, claiming that he and his aide were lone survivors of the plane crash. But discontent within the upper echelons of Burmese society soon protested at what was now a corrupt-royalist regime.
The situation remained uncertain until 1992, when an unknown military man Khin Lwin seized power from the Effendi Regime. In a bloodless coup d'tat, the now former King Effendi was toppled from power. The new military leader of Burma, immediatly banned 'Royalism' in the country and replaced many military commanders with his own personal friends.
The Lwin Government, set to work reforming the political system of the country and reversing the miliary decline that Burma had suffered under what was deemed the 'Royalist Experiment' of Effendi. International outrage came from China and others, when it became apparrent that Effendi had been executed.
The Lwin Government was anti-communist and in favour of closer ties with the western powers. Burma was involved in the Tibet Crisis, siding with PACFORCE against China and much of the Communist World. However after a short stand-off which saw the Burmese Military readying itself to 'liberate' Tibet knowing full well that War with China would ensue.
This decision, together wit Lwins extreme anticommunism, which costed thousands of lives, caused a gigantic downfall in his popularity. The military Junta hated him because they believed Lwin would lead to the destruction of Burma.
In February 1993 the Military couped the hated general and captured him. The popular rebel army commander Tsi Loi came into power. Tsi Loi was forced to flee to China when Khin Lwin started his anticommunist persecutions. Several of his friends had been killed because they came up for the rights of the workers. Tsi Loi, who was a Communist, quickly promoted in the ranks of the illegal Burmese Communist Party. By the time he was chosen as the new Burmese president, he was already CHairman of the BCP.
The policies of Tsi Loi have been a 180° turn for Burma: short after he came in power, Burma signed an MDP with Indochina and China, called STARFORCE, a direct rival to PACFORCE. The execution of Khin Lwin was wupported by almost all people. No nation in the world preferred Khin LWin above Tsi Loi, so in the beginning it was easy for him. After the People's Government declared Maoism the new governmental policy, formed the Red Guard and started a Cultural Revolution, the rich inhabitants however rose up against Tsi Loi. These protests were mostly peaceful, but at some places the protesters started shooting at the police, causing firefights. But since the military and the Lower Class are totally behind Tsi Loi, his position was not in danger. After several policemen got shot dead by armed protesters, Tso Loi declared that the policement had the right to shoor back at firing protesters. However, some misintrepreted this as a carte blanche for police violence, causing several casualties amongst protesters, armed and unarmed alike. Tsi Loi however quickly responded by changing the instructions for the police and army, giving them only the right to shoot back when directly shot at, and after first trying to capture the assaillant alive. Certain police officers, who had purposely killed unarmed protesters and bystanders in an act of so-called "blood rage", were sentenced to death soon after. By these actions the bloody repression of protests, which was pretty common in Burma, came to an end. Peaceful protests were left completely untouched by order of Tsi Loi himself. After the initial protests, in which only a small minority of the Burmese people participated (mainly the upper class and businessmen), the exodus of businessmen, upper class members and nobles started. Contrary to many expectations however, the emigration was also completely unharmed. Tsi Loi ordered that the capitalists and millionaires wishing the leave the country should do so, stating that Burma was "better of rid of them" and that he "rather had them all leave the nation than stay here and start a counterrevolution sooner or later". This caused thousands of Burmese elites to cross the border into neighbouring India, where they ended up in refugee camps, as India had no means to immediately take care of such an influx of immigrants. The People's Government on the other hand used the opportunity to seize and nationalize the companies the emigrants left behind and increasing the power of the Communist Party. With most of the biggest political opponents of Tsi Loi's regime gone, the Revolution was in fact made easier.
Since February 1993, the Burmese government is called the People's Government. This title points out that the Communist Party is in power. In April, Tsi Loi announced that Maoism would be the new governmental policy. The Burmese Government is a one-party state with only the Burmese Communist Party recognised as official political party.
The People's Government is divided in three branches: the Presidium of the COmmunist Party, which consists of the leaders of the local Party offices; the Military Comitee, which consists of local Junta leaders; and the High Soviet, consisting of local Soviet leaders who are directly elected by the People.
The Chairman of the Burmese Communist Party, and thus also the Chairman of the Presidium of the Communist Party is Tsi Loi.
Tsi Loi is also head of the total People's Government, president of Burma and supreme commander of the Burmese Revolutionary Army. The Chairman of the Military Comitee is Soi Len, a Junta general and close friend of president Tsi Loi.
The ministers are called People's Commissars. The main difference between western ministers and People's COmmissars is that the People's Commissars are directly elected by the People, and not by the government of a parliament.
The Burmese economy is for a huge part nationalized by the People's Government. Nationalisation started with basic necessities, such as water stations, electricity producing industries and energy plants, but soon afterwards most of the economical branches were brought under state control. This, together with the Cultural Revolution, caused many rich class members to flee the nations, which threatened the Burmese economy. However the People's Government responded by seizing the property of these emigrants and bringing it completely under state control. The nationalizaed plants and factories are run by a Soviet, which is a democratically elected worker council.
The military are very powerfull in Burma and have suffered great financial setbacks while under Effendi. General Khin has pledged to rebuild the army to safeguard Burmese People into the 21st Century. After the revolution, Tsi Loi proceeded with the expansion and improvement of the Burmese army, particularly bu purchasing miltary equipment from China and the USSR. By 1994, when war between PACFORCE and STARFORCE was looming, the Burmese Revolutionary Army was positioned alongside the border with Thailand, a PACFORCE member, ready for a possible attack.
- Than Shwe (Jan 1990)
- Ne Win (Feb 1990 - March 1990)
- King Shoghi Efendi (March 1990 - January 1991)
- Interim Government (January 1991 - Feb 1992)
- General Khin Lwin (Feb 1992 - February 1993)
- Comrade Tsi Loi (February 1993- present)